AI in Europe
This page provides a partial snapshot of the various resources, organizations, and groups that make up the AI ecosystem in Europe. It focusses mainly on the entities that are the result of the policies of the European Commission and the associated strategies to implement these policies.
The term ecosystem is much over-used but in this case it is justified in that we see the creation of a network of self-sustaining, mutually-supporting, and mutually-dependent bodies, all concerned with the implementation of Europe's strategy for research, development, and innovation (RDI) in human-centric, sustainable, secure, inclusive, and trustworthy AI.
What appears below is effectively a directory of entities and their activities. As such, it is presented hierarchically, in the form of a tree. It is important to realize that this presentation therefore omits the key links between the various entities (with one or two exceptions). These links are essential: without them, there is no system, much less an ecosystem.
In the final section, Interconnections, I try to capture these links by indicating, very briefly, how the various entities work together.
- 1 European Commission Documents
- 2 European Commission Services
- 3 Public Private Partnerships (PPP)
- 4 Network of AI Excellence Centres
- 5 The AI Lighthouse
- 6 The European AI-on-Demand Platform
- 7 Testing and Experimentation Facilities (TEFs)
- 8 Digital Innovation Hubs (DIHs)
- 9 European Digital Innovation Hubs (EDIHs)
- 10 Programmes for Education and Training
- 11 Interconnections
European Commission Documents
Artificial Intelligence for Europe 2018
Coordinated Plan on Artificial Intelligence 2018
Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI 2019
On Artificial Intelligence - A European approach to excellence and trust 2020 White Paper
A European Strategy for Data 2020
List for Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence for self-assessment 2020
AI Watch - Artificial Intelligence in Public Services 2020
Coordinated Plan on Artificial Intelligence 2021 Review; see pp. 19-20 regarding the networks of AI excellence centres and the AI lighthouse
European Commission Services
Public Private Partnerships (PPP)
European Partnership on Artificial Intelligence, Data and Robotics, in which Adra - AI, Data and Robotics Association, asbl - is the private side of the partnership, involving
- Big Data Value Association BVDA
- Confederation of Laboratories for Artificial Intelligence Research in Europe CLAIRE
- European Laboratory for Learning and Intelligent Systems ELLIS
- European Association for Artificial Intelligence EurAi
- euRobotics (also AICoR the euRobotics Topic Group on AI and Cognition in Robotics)
SRIDA Strategic Research Innovation and Deployment Agenda
Network of AI Excellence Centres
Coordination and Support Action (CSA)
- About VISION:
- Posters by the four ICT48 Networks of AI Excellence Centres: AI4Media, ELISE, HumanE-AI-net, TAILOR
AI4Media targetting the Media, Society and Democracy
- About the network: Project Overview, Action Plan, Consortium, Associate Members, Video, Methodology in an Nutshell graphic
- Results: Observatory, Use Cases, Public Reports, Scientific Papers
- Media: Events, News and Articles, Newsletters
- Open Calls
- Mobility: Junior Fellows Exchange Program, Mobility Matchmaking
- AIDA - AI Doctoral Academy
- Research: Strategic Research Agenda May 2021 (45 pages), Press release
- Collaboration: Open Calls for SMEs
- Mobility: for Experienced Researchers and Ph.D. students & post-docs
- Education: ELLIS Ph.D. and Post-doc Program
- Structure: Network Organization
- Communications: News and Events
HumanE-AI-net European Network of Human-centered Artificial Intelligence
- People: My blue sky project for AI in Europe is ...]
- Partners, of which there are fifty-three
- Blog: sixteen videos of people's answers to the question "What is your opinion on Human-centred Artificial Intelligence"
- Videos: HumaneAI promotional video (one video), Debate and presentations (two videos), Perspectives on HumaneAI and blue sky projects (forty-eight videos)
- News Items
- Research: Research Roadmap
- Reports: Overview
- D1.3 Humane AI Ethical Framework
- D2.1 HumanE AI Concept and Research Plan
- D4.1 Organizational concepts and legal frameworks ...
Private deliverables, i.e. Official reports on the project results (no content available)
Public deliverables, i.e. official reports from HumaneAI preparatory action for new FET Flagships (including the reports above)
- HumaneAI kickoff meeting April 110-12, Berlin.
- HumaneAI European Commission workshop, May 17, Brussels.
- HumaneAI Roadmap Workshop, June 17-18, Paris.
- HumaneAI Strategy Workshop October 10-11, 2019, Hague.
- HumaneAI Innovation Workshop October 30-31, 2019, Munich.
- Moderated online panel on the vision and plans of the Humane AI Net project December 16, 2020, online.
- AI and Human Memory February 23, 2021, online.
- HumaneAI Network Micro-projects March 17, 2021, online.
- HumaneAI delivering a one day event @ European Parliament March 24, 2021, Brussels.
- AI Idea Prize: Show, Pitch & Match April 29, 2021, online.
- Closing the Loop: Human and AI Collaboration, Interaction, and Partnership May 19, 2021, online.
- Regulation: What we need to talk about when we talk about AI June 3, 2021, online.
- Human-centred Artificial Intelligence June 20–25, 2021, Dagstuhl, Germany.
- AI and Society Round Table June 30, 2021, online.
- The Role of AI and Digital Twins in Decarbonising Construction, June 30, 2021, online.
- ACAI 2021: The advanced course on AI on Human Centered AI October 11-14, 2021, Berlin, Germany and online.
- Micro-projects: Overview, Evolving Graph of Partnerships
- Neural mechanism in human brain activity during weight lifting
- Extracting narratives from clinical patient data
- X5LEARN: Cross Modal, Cross Cultural, Cross Lingual, Cross Domain, and Cross Site interface for access to openly licensed educational materials
- Intelligent Virtual Characters to Induce Positive Emotions
- DIASER: DIAlog task oriented annotations for enhanced modeling of uSER
- Combining symbolic and sub-symbolic approaches: Improving neural Question-Answering-Systems through Document Analysis for enhanced accuracy and efficiency in Human-AI interaction
- Improving air quality in large cities using mobile phone and IoT data
- Reasoning on Contextual Hierarchies via Answer Set Programming with Algebraic Measures
- Collection of datasets tailored for HumanE-AI multimodal perception and modelling
- Algorithmic bias and media effects
- Causality and Explainability in Temporal Data
- Validating fairness property in post-processing vs in-processing systems
- What idea of AI? Social and public perception of AI
- Normative behavior and extremism in facebook groups
- Agent based modeling of the Human-AI ecosystem
- Learning Individual Users’ Strategies for Adaptive UIs
- Coping with the variability of human feedback during interactive learning through ensemble reinforcement learning
- Educational Recommenders with Narratives
- Social AI gossiping
- Creation of stories and narrative from data of Cultural Heritage
- Using Social Norms to counteract misinformation in online communities
- Linking language and semantic memory for building narratives
- Neural-symbolic integration: explainability and reasoning in KENN
- A tale of two consensus. Building consensus in collaborative and self-interested scenarios
- Online Deep-AUTOML
- Uncertainty Handling in Highly Automated Driving: Beyond Data
- Ethical chatbots
- Connected vehicle simulation for AI-based applications
- Socially aware interactions
- Explainable vertigo diagnosis
TAILOR A Network of Research Excellence Centres
targetting trustworthy AI through the integration of learning, optimisation, and reasoning
- About the project: Video, Project Data, Organization, Objectives, Deliverables: Publicly-available Deliverables
- About the network: Connectivity Fund, Industry Sectors, Partners, Network Members, International Advisory Board
- Strategic Research and Innovation Roadmap (SRIR)
- WP3 Trustworthy AI: Overview, WP3, Kickoff Meeting, Open Meeting, Tasks, Partners, Coordinated Actions, Calendar, Links, Contacts, FAQ
- WP4 Unifying AI Paradigms and Representations: Overview, WP4, Description, Tasks, Workshops, Publications, External Links
- WP5 Deciding and Learning How to Act: Overview, WP5, Papers, Kickoff Workshop, Roadmap Workshop, Highlights, Trustworthy AI, Focus, Description, Tasks, Calendar, Meetings and Talks, Google Group, Links
- Social: How do AI agents act and learn in a society?
- AutoAI: How can we use AI "at the meta-level" ... by people with limited AI expertise? 2nd AutoAI Workshop
- News Items
The AI Lighthouse
This has yet to be launched. See Interconnections for more on its role.
The European AI-on-Demand Platform
Testing and Experimentation Facilities (TEFs)
- TEF Workshops 2020
- TEF Workshops 2021
- FAQ document on Sectorial Testing and Experimentation Facilities (TEFs) (document to be downloaded)
- Presentation at the "Leading the Digital Decade" event of 2 June 2021 Video (6' 25")
- Big Picture: Artificial intelligence in the DIGITAL Europe programme
Digital Innovation Hubs (DIHs)
Yellow Pages of Digital Innovation Hubs, including candidate European Digital Innovation Hubs
European Digital Innovation Hubs (EDIHs)
Programmes for Education and Training
Recall that the AI ecosystem comprises the following entities.
- The European Commission
- Public Private Partnerships (PPP)
- Network of AI Excellence Centres and an associated Coordination and Support Action (CSA)
- The AI Lighthouse; yet to be launched
- The European AI-on-Demand Platform
- Testing and experimentation facilities (TEFs); yet to be launched
- Digital Innovation Hubs (DIHs)
- European Digital Innovation Hubs (EDIHs); yet to be launched
- Programmes for Education and Training
The European Commission engages in consultative policy development and implements this policy by through a strategic plan, including the funding or co-funding of the various entities identified in the plan.
Together with the European Commission, the PPPs are formed by associations or organizations that represent the strategic interests of industry and research centres & laboratories. One of their main responsibilities is to identify the priority research, development, and innovation (RDI) topics, themes, technologies, and challenges and to capture them in an effective research roadmap or research agenda. This agenda provides input for public and private funding bodies that support RDI. The goal is to have a significant impact on European products and processes though the adoption of AI.
The Network of AI Excellence Centres aims to increase cooperation among the best research teams in Europe, so that they can join forces to tackle the scientific and technological challenges identified by the PPPs, and to facilitate closer cooperation, integration and synergies between research teams and industry. At present, this network comprises four sub-networks, each targeting a different section of the AI community, and each formed by a project that is funded by the European Commission. Support of the cohesion of these sub-networks is provided by an associated Coordination and Support Action VISION. The Excellence Centres generate the research results that provide the techniques, tools, and methodologies - collectively referred to as assets - that form the foundation for further development and innovation by industry. These assets are made available through the European AI on Demand Platform, the regional Digital Innovation Hubs, and the European Digital Innovation Hubs, when they are launched. The Network of AI Excellence Centres also creates education and training material.
The AI lighthouse for Europe has yet to be launched. It will expand and deepen the Network of AI Excellence Centres by adding new centres and building an even stronger alliance between them. This alliance will share a common roadmap to support basic and applied research, bring about alignment with national AI efforts, foster innovation and investment, attract and retain AI talent in Europe, and create synergies and economies of scale.
The European AI-on-Demand Platform - known as AI4EU - is a one-stop shop for all matters AI: knowledge, know-how, technology, tools, services and experts. It hosts a catalogue of AI assets that can be used by developers to exploit AI and embed it in process and products. At time of writing, there were 90 assets listed in the catalog. This is one of the forums that the AI Excellence Centres use to make their results available to the community but any organization can request their asset to be listed. Note that AI4EU has a new website https://www.ai4europe.eu/ and the old one at https://www.ai4EU.eu/ is deprecated.
The Testing and experimentation facilities (TEFs) , anticipated in the Coordinated Plan on Artificial Intelligence and yet to be launched, will provide expertise and experience in testing mature technology in a given sector, in real or close-to-real conditions. The aim is to provide developers with an infrastructure for testing AI technology before bringing it to the market. TEFs are planned for four sectors - agri-food, manufacturing, healthcare, and smart cities - and technologies (edge AI). According to the Coordinated Plan on Artificial Intelligence 2021 Review, the edge AI TEF plays a special role in the AI ecosystem by enabling "companies of any size to test and experiment innovative edge AI components based on advanced low-power computing technologies, such as neuromorphic computing" and other "low-powered AI computing hardware".
The Digital Innovation Hubs (DIHs) operate on a similar basis to the European AI-on-Demand Platform, in that they act as a one-stop shop providing technical expertise and resources for experimentation so that companies can "test before they invest". DIHs also provide innovation services, e.g. training and advice on financing training. The link with the European AI-on-Demand Platform by exploiting the assets make available by AI-on-Demand Platform, making them accessible to business on a regional basis, and by sharing their experiences with the AI-on-Demand Platform.
The European Digital Innovation Hubs (EDIHs) represents a yet-to-be-launched second wave of DIHs across Europe with some 200 DIHs planned, at a cost of approx. 1.5 billion euros, co-funded by the European Commission and member states.
The final element of the ecosystem are the education and training programs that are essential to equipping the workforce with the requisite knowledge, know-how, and skills in AI. These programs are created and implemented by several bodies, including the AI Excellence centres, the DIHs and EDIHs, and, of course, any education and training institute in the EU. There are made available through several channels, including AI Excellence centres, DIHs, EDIHs, and the AI-on-Demand Platform.